Prehistoric literacy[ edit ] Origins of literacy[ edit ] Literacy is emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8, BCE.
English classes taken in middle school, and sometimes in the early years of high school, provide the basics, but many students lose these skills before they begin college. Professors in all majors expect students to enter their courses with high-level writing skills.
A gap in skill level is often met with remedial English courses in the first semester of college. Use this guide to refresh your knowledge of basic grammar rules, and to understand what you need to know and apply in your college classes. This resource can also serve as a reference as you complete your first written assignments.
Types of Academic Writing There are different writing styles, each with a different purpose or audience. There are situations in which one style will be more appropriate than another, and there is a variety of strategies you can use to approach the work.
This section of our guide provides an overview of the writing types you will likely encounter as a college student.
Argument Papers Assignments that require you to support a position, claim or opinion involve a persuasive writing approach. These papers are framed with a thesis statementwhich introduces a focused assertion.
Tips for writing argument papers include: Clearly describe the central issue, position or premise. Provide evidence that supports the position presented in your thesis statement.
Develop a conclusion based on the evidence you provided. Research Papers Research papers can take multiple forms, depending on the purpose and specific requirements of your class assignment.
This format can be used to describe the methods used in your own research project, present the results of a research project and to describe the research that has already been completed in an area of interest.
Some assignments require a combination of these approaches.
These papers typically include formal sectionssuch as an introduction, review of existing research literature, analysis, discussion of results and conclusion. Tips for writing research papers include: Develop a clear and focused research question, hypothesis, thesis or topic.
Identify relevant sources, including previous research reports. Analyze the results found in your sources. Describe how results answer your research question, prove or disprove your hypothesis, support your thesis or expand knowledge of your topic. Expository Papers Similar to argument and persuasive essays, expository papers require you to research an idea or concept and provide supporting evidence.
This type of writing includes a thesis statement, as well as the logical presentation of sources that address the idea you are exploring in your paper. A five-paragraph format is typical for expository essays: This form of writing is often used to evaluate your knowledge of a topic and can be included in exams.
Tips for writing expository papers include: Determine the approach required for the assignment: Write a concise thesis statement that presents your topic, but does not include opinion. Research existing information about your topic. Provide objective evidence and relevant information found in your research.
Provide a conclusion that connects supporting information with the thesis statement. Exam Essays Professors often use written exams to measure your knowledge of a specific topic, understanding of a complex concept or comprehension of course reading and resources.
These essays can include components of argument and persuasion, research and exposition, as directed by your instructor. The first step in preparation for essay exams is to complete all of your course reading assignments, participate in discussions and organize your notes and study time.
This should take place throughout the course, not just in time for the exam date. Tips for exam essay writing include: Create a rough outline that sets up the scope and sequence of your essay, as well as critical concepts and sources you should include.
Develop a response that presents a clear main point or argument and organized supporting points. Monitor your progress if the written exam is timed.
Academic Proposals Academic proposals are typically written as part of grant applications or for professional conference presentations.The leading US college admissions test that measures what you learn in high school to determine your academic readiness for college.
GRAMMAR FOR ACADEMIC WRITING iv Introduction Grammar for Academic Writing provides a selective overview of the key areas of English grammar that you need to master, in order to express yourself correctly and appropriately in academic writing. Providing educators and students access to the highest quality practices and resources in reading and language arts instruction.
The IELTS writing task 2 sample answer below has examiner comments and is band score 9. The topic of social media is common and this IELTS essay question was reported in the IELTS test.
Check the model essay and then read the comments. Many people believe that social networking sites (such as. In addition, for nontraditional students who haven’t studied English in a while, making the transition to academic writing can be difficult.
Professors in all majors expect students to enter their courses with high-level writing skills. You can have the best ideas in the world, but no one will read them if your writing style is dull.