From left to right: Behind them are Kuban Cossacks.
The executioners, as you call them, have used various weapons according to various books and articles. Some have them using pistols, others have them using bayonets, some say they had knives with them as well. I believe, if you read "The Romanovs: The Final Chapter" by Robert Massie, you will find the forensic evidence as to what was done to the bodies at least as much as science can tell us Succession box[ edit ] We decided quite some time ago that Nicholas II was indeed the final tsar and there is no such thing as Michael II.
I have undone the historic vandalism in the succession box.
I would like to cite: Chapter 17, Page As stated and cited in the book: Earlier, Grand Duke Mikhail had been shot in Perm. Trotsky asked Sverdlov who had made the decision to kill the entire Royal family. The Tsar's family fell victim to the principle which constitutes the axis of monarchy: Trotsky's Diary in Exile,New York,pp If one reads this paragraph without context one could assume that Lenin had a hand in the death of the Tsar and his immediate Family.
However, while Lenin may be culpable and accountable for the above mentioned deaths, the problem of who gave the orders to execute the Tsar and his family now comes up. To read the prior passages of the chapter Pages To summarize: After the arrival of the Royal Family at Ekaterniburg, the leaders of the local Soviet began discussing thier execution.
The Majority however, refused to assume responsibility without Moscow's approval. The Central Committee debated the advisability of holding a Public Trail in Ekaterniburg, but the precarious military situation made forced this plan to be abandoned.
The Czechoslovak legion was approaching at the time 5.
Bykov one of the Ural commissars relates the killing of the Royal Family on July 16th. The task of destroying the bodies is not completed until July 18th. This task was carried out by a detachment of Lettish Checkists under the command of Yurovsky, a member of the Ural Soviet. The Soviet Power in this incident displayed its extremely democratic nature.
It made no exception for the All-Russian murderer and shot him as one shoots an ordinary bandit. The Last days of the Romanovs, Pg Official Announcement of the execution was made to the Sovnarcom on July 18th by Sverdlov, the day after Lenin received a full report by Direct Wire.
Nicholas wanted to escape. The Czechoslovaks were approaching the city. The Presidium of the Central Executive Committee has decided to approve this act.
To review, if one reads and accepts the chain of events, then there is at the very least, a clear case of reasonable doubt. Furthermore, we do not know if there was an order handed down by Lenin to liquidate the Tsar; whether this order extended to the entire Royal family, children and all.
Mens Rea in this specific case, has not been clearly proven. For one thing the regional soviet could have acted o its own, and as Sverdlov states, was then endorsed by the Central committee, or even that it was the act of Bylov and his supporters who then in turn were endorsed by the Regional Soviet in order to save face, etc etc.
Whether Lenin ordered the executions of a multitude of people is not something we need to debate. The bone of contention here is whether or not he ordered the execution of the Tsar AND his family. I therefore request that this sentence of this section of the page be edited, include additional citation or deleted.
For the purposes of thoroughness a review and its reply on David Shub's book can be found here: Raven Letters talk Could someone please cite the source? She did, however have appendicitis spelling? Her appendix was saved and thats what the DNA testing was done on.
It was something like that.Tsar Nicholas II, whom many considered to be a credulous man and a weak political leader, presided over a time of great change. By the early 20th century, Russia had entered a period of rapid industrialization that mainly benefited foreign investors and landowners, and people began to pour into towns and factories at incredibly high rates.
The film covers the time span from until and does not touch Nicholas II’s rule and his death, when, along with his family, he was killed by Bolsheviks in Jews long suffered discrimination in Russia, including purges in the 19th century, repression under the regime of Joseph Stalin, and Nazi atrocities on Russian soil during World War II.
In Russia, Nicholas II faced widespread criticism after the victory of the Revolution. Pavel Bykov, who in Russia wrote the first full account about the downfall of the Tsar, denounced Nicholas as a "tyrant, who paid with his life for the age-old repression and arbitrary rule of his ancestors over the Russian people, over the impoverished and Predecessor: Alexander III.
This means that the last ethnic Russian ancestor of Nicholas II was the father of Peter I, Tsar Alexis I of Russia (8 generations and years back), as his mother Eudoxia Streshneva was Russian and his paternal grandmother was also a Russian.
Simply, it is a form of Russian governmental institution that was formed during the reign of the last Tsar, Nicholas II. Russian Revolution (March ) Forced the Czar to abdicate, established freedom of the press, and granted a blanket amnesty to political prisoners in Siberia - including terrorists.