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Parmenides, Theaetetus, Phaedrus c. Transmission of Plato's Works Except for the Timaeus, all of Plato's works were lost to the Western world until medieval times, preserved only by Moslem scholars in the Middle East.
In Henri Estienne whose Latinized name was Stephanus published an edition of the dialogues in which each page of the text is separated into five sections labeled a, b, c, d, and e.
The standard style of citation for Platonic texts includes the name of the text, followed by Stephanus page and section numbers e.
Scholars sometimes also add numbers after the Stephanus section letters, which refer to line numbers within the Stephanus sections in the standard Greek edition of the dialogues, the Oxford Classical texts.
Other Works Attributed to Plato a. Spuria Several other works, including thirteen letters and eighteen epigrams, have been attributed to Plato.
These other works are generally called the spuria and the dubia. The spuria were collected among the works of Plato but suspected as frauds even in antiquity. The dubia are those presumed authentic in later antiquity, but which have more recently been doubted.
Ten of the spuria are mentioned by Diogenes Laertius at 3. Five of these are no longer extant: Five others do exist: To the ten Diogenes Laertius lists, we may uncontroversially add On Justice, On Virtue, and the Definitions, which was included in the medieval manuscripts of Plato's work, but not mentioned in antiquity.
Works whose authenticity was also doubted in antiquity include the Second Alcibiades or Alcibiades IIEpinomis, Hipparchus, and Rival Lovers also known as either Rivals or Loversand these are sometimes defended as authentic today.
If any are of these are authentic, the Epinomis would be in the late group, and the others would go with the early or early transitional groups. Epigrams Seventeen or eighteen epigrams poems appropriate to funerary monuments or other dedications are also attributed to Plato by various ancient authors.
Most of these are almost certainly not by Plato, but some few may be authentic. None appear to provide anything of great philosophical interest.
Dubia The dubia present special risks to scholars: On the one hand, any decision not to include them among the authentic dialogues creates the risk of losing valuable evidence for Plato's or perhaps Socrates' philosophy; on the other hand, any decision to include them creates the risk of obfuscating the correct view of Plato's or Socrates' philosophy, by including non-Platonic or non-Socratic elements within that philosophy.
The dubia include the First Alcibiades or Alcibiades IMinos, and Theages, all of which, if authentic, would probably go with the early or early transitional groups, the Cleitophon, which might be early, early transitional, or middle, and the letters, of which the Seventh seems the best candidate for authenticity.
Some scholars have also suggested the possibility that the Third may also be genuine. If any are authentic, the letters would appear to be works of the late period, with the possible exception of the Thirteenth Letter, which could be from the middle period.
Nearly all of the dialogues now accepted as genuine have been challenged as inauthentic by some scholar or another. In the 19th Century in particular, scholars often considered arguments for and against the authenticity of dialogues whose authenticity is now only rarely doubted.
Of those we listed as authentic, above in the early grouponly the Hippias Major continues occasionally to be listed as inauthentic. The strongest evidence against the authenticity of the Hippias Major is the fact that it is never mentioned in any of the ancient sources.
However, relative to how much was actually written in antiquity, so little now remains that our lack of ancient references to this dialogue does not seem to be an adequate reason to doubt its authenticity.
In style and content, it seems to most contemporary scholars to fit well with the other Platonic dialogues. The Early Dialogues a. Historical Accuracy Although no one thinks that Plato simply recorded the actual words or speeches of Socrates verbatim, the argument has been made that there is nothing in the speeches Socrates makes in the Apology that he could have not uttered at the historical trial.
At any rate, it is fairly common for scholars to treat Plato's Apology as the most reliable of the ancient sources on the historical Socrates.
The other early dialogues are certainly Plato's own creations. But as we have said, most scholars treat these as representing more or less accurately the philosophy and behavior of the historical Socrates—even if they do not provide literal historical records of actual Socratic conversations.
Some of the early dialogues include anachronisms that prove their historical inaccuracy. It is possible, of course, that the dialogues are all wholly Plato's inventions and have nothing at all to do with the historical Socrates.Socratic Seminar "In Search of Good Family" Why is it typical of other countries to tend to have higher family obligations to one another when compared to most American families?
America focuses much attention on independence. Independence is part of what America was made up to be. Indeed, relativism and the moral nihilism with which it is often affiliated, seems to be in retreat everywhere.
For many observers and critics, this is a wholly positive development since both have the corrosive effect of undermining ethical certainty. Socratic Ignorance in Democracy, the Free Market, and Science. Democracy. Much controversy continues over Socrates's attitude towards democracy.
I.F. Stone, embarrassed that the first democracy should have killed a man for exercising freedom of speech and freedom of religion, attempted to justify this by going after Socrates as an enemy of democracy (The Trial of Socrates); but since Stone was.
Use these packs to tie content-area lessons together and support whole-class lessons, small-group teaching, independent work, and family engagement. The Socratic method is one of the most famous, least used, and least understood teaching and conversation practices.
The Socratic method of questioning is named after the Greek philosopher Socrates ( BC– BC), who lived in Athens Greece. The term cognitive restructuring refers to the process of challenging, and changing, irrational thoughts. Socratic questioning is one technique to encourage this process.
Therapists use Socratic questioning verbally by asking probing questions about their clients' irrational thoughts.