Globally, 1 in 3 women will experience gender-based violence in her lifetime. In the developing world, 1 in 7 girls is married before her 15th birthday, with some child brides as young as 8 or 9.
History[ edit ] In in the Human Development Report commissioned by the United Nations Development Program set-out to create two new measurement indices for measuring development.
Their aim was to add to the Human Development Index by way of including a gender dimension in the measure. Mahbub ul Haqthe first director of the Human Development Report Office, established several principles for the newly emerging measure including provisions that it had to be simple, had to be represented as a single number, had to be easily calculated, had to yield numbers that were internationally comparable, had to use numbers available on a yearly basis and had to use numbers that were easily interpretable.
The GEM, the more specialized of the two, is focused on indicating the relative empowerment of women in a given country. The GEM tends to be more agency focused what people are actually able to do than well-being focused how people feel or fare in the grand scheme of things.
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments, percentage of women in economic decision making positions incl. Some of the major criticisms of both measures includes that they are highly specialized and difficult to interpret, often misinterpreted, suffer from large data gaps, do not provide accurate comparisons across countries, and try to combine too many development factors into a single measure.
The concern then arises that if these indices are not well informed, then their numbers might hide more than they reveal. Not many less-developed countries collect reliable data on women's involvement in economic participation or labor involvement.
As a result, the GEM is only reliable for very highly developed countries which do collect those statistics. It is also often argued that the number of women in parliament isn't an adequate indication of gender empowerment progress in a given country because many times feminists are considered political liabilities, and as such, female politicians do not always promote female interests.
On the other hand, however, information regarding the number of parliamentary seats held by women is very easy to obtain, and very hard to alter, making it one of the more reliable sources of data in the measure.
Another criticism of the GEM is its failure to address the issue of female control over their bodies and sexuality, which some argue is an important source of female empowerment and as such should be included in the measure.
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Many suggestions have been made to alter the GEM.
It has been suggested that the GEM be altered to include female representation in local government instead of only national government to make it less elite. Furthermore, it has been recommended that it should be revised to reflect female participation in political activities such as voting.
Additionally, it has been recommended that a component regarding women's control over their own bodies and sexuality be added by measuring availability of birth control and the right to abortion.
It has also been suggested that the GEM could be altered to include the proportion of females who are in extreme poverty as opposed to the proportion of parliamentary positions held by females. Lastly, it has been suggested that the GEM could be altered to include female levels of unemployment.
The GEE is another suggested alternative to the GEM, this measure would include legal framework and protection of women's rights, as well as other important areas of women's empowerment that are overlooked by the GEM like women's movements, public attitudes, and equal rights.
This new experimental measure considers three dimensions: Reproductive health, empowerment, and labor market participation which aim to ameliorate some of the problems associated with the GEM.Rural women and girls face the brunt of the feminization of poverty and its inter-generational consequences and the impacts of climate change.
The United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, also known as UN Women, is a United Nations entity working for the empowerment of women..
UN Women became operational in January President of Chile Michelle Bachelet was the inaugural Executive Director, and Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka is the current Executive Director.
As with UNIFEM previously, UN Women . A new study explores a strange paradox: In countries that empower women, they are less likely to choose math and science professions. Several news stories in recent months have illustrated gender inequalities on a global scale.
Social media campaigns like #YesAllWomen and #BringBackOurGirls have helped to raise awareness of injustices and encourage female empowerment. Investments in gender equality and the human rights of women and girls have high payoffs for the well-being of children and families, poverty reduction, economic growth, environmental stewardship and inclusive governance.
UN Women is the global champion for gender equality, working to develop and uphold standards and create an environment in which every woman and girl can exercise her human rights and live up to her full potential.
We are trusted partners for advocates and decision-makers from all walks of life, and a leader in the effort to achieve gender equality.