Civilizations americas

TikalGuatemalaMaya civilization.

Civilizations americas

The calendar system and sophisticated astronomical observations were made possible by a vigesimal system of mathematics.

The Maya knew the concept of zero and used it in conjunction with the concept Civilizations americas place value or position. With elegant simplicity and only signs for one, five, and zero, they could make complex calculations.

As among all the Mesoamerican peoples, the Maya calendar was based on a concept of recurring cycles of different length. They had a sacred cycle of days divided into months of 20 days, within which there was a cycle of 13 numbers. This ritual calendar meshed with a solar calendar of days, or 18 months of 20 days with a remainder of 5 "dead" or inauspicious days at the end of the year.

The two calendars operated simultaneously so any day would have two names, but the particular combination of those two days would reoccur only once every 52 years. Thus among the Maya and most Mesoamericans, cycles of 52 years were sacred.

The classic Maya, however, differed from their neighbors in that they also kept a "long count" or a system of dating from a fixed date in the past. This date, B. Like other Mesoamericans and the ancient Peruvians the Maya believed in great cycles of creation and destruction of the universe.

The long count enabled the Maya to date events with precision. The earliest recorded Maya date that survives is A.

Civilizations americas

A second great Maya accomplishment was the Civilizations americas of a writing system. The Maya "wrote" on stone monuments, murals, and ceramics, and in books of folded bark paper and deerskin, only four of which survive. Scribes were honored and held an important place in society. Although we still cannot read many inscriptions, recent advances now permit the reading of many texts.

Civilizations americas

The Maya written language was, like Chinese and Sumerian, a logographic system that combined phonetic and semantic elements. With this system and about symbols they were able to record and transmit complex concepts and ideas. The few remaining books are religious and astronomical texts, and many inscriptions on ceramics deal with the cult of the dead and with the complex Maya cosmology.

The Maya view of the universe was a flat earth, whose cardinal points and center were each dominated by a god who supported the sky. Above the sky extended 13 levels of heavens and below nine underworlds, each dominated by a god.

Through these levels the sun and the moon, also conceived as deities, passed each day. A basic concept of Mesoamerican dualism - male and female, good and bad, day and night - emphasized the unity of all things, similar to that found in some Asian religions.

Thus each god often had a parallel female consort or feminine form and often an underworld equivalent as well.

In addition, there were patron deities of various occupations and classes. Thus the number of deities in the inscriptions seems overwhelming, but these should be understood as manifestations of a more limited set of supernatural forces, much like the avatars, or incarnations, of the Hindu gods.

While the few surviving books are religious in character, the majority of inscriptions on monuments are historical records of the ruling families of the Maya cities. The major Maya centers were the cores of city-states that controlled outlying territories.

There was constant warfare, and rulers, such as Pacal of Palenque who died in A. Pacal's victories were recorded on his funerary monuments and in his lavish tomb discovered inside a pyramid at Palenque.

The rulers exercised considerable civil and probably religious power, and their rule was aided by an elite that exercised administrative functions. A class of scribes or perhaps priests tended to the cult of the state and specialized in the complex calendrical observations and calculations.

The ruler and the scribes organized and participated in rituals of self-mutilation and human sacrifice that among the Maya, as in much of Mesoamerica, formed an important aspect of religion.

Also, as a form of both worship and sport, the Maya like other Mesoamerican peoples wagered on and played a ritual ball game on specially constructed courts in which players moved a ball with their hips or elbows.

Losers might forfeit their possessions or their lives. Builders, potters, scribes, sculptors, and painters worked in the cities for the glory of the gods and the rulers.

Most people, however, were peasant farmers whose labor supported the elaborate ritual and political lives of the elite.

The Peoples And Civilizations Of The Americas

Patrilineal families probably formed the basis of social life as they did among the Maya of later days. The elite, however, traced their families through both their fathers and mothers.This list of pre-Columbian cultures includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas Contents 1 Cultural characteristics.

the earliest American civilization, located along the Gulf Coast of Mexico from B.C. to B.C. stela in the ancient world, a tall, commemorative monument that was often decorated. CIVILIZATIONS OF THE AMERICAS DBQ This task is based on the accompanying documents.

HISTORY Vault: Celebrate Black History

Some of these documents have been edited for the purpose of this task. The United States of America is a world "super-power" (which more or less means that it is vital to the world economy and balance of power). A relatively young civilization, the United States formed in the 18th century, nearly self-destructed in the 19th century, and became the most powerful and dominant military, technological, cultural and economical civilization in the 20th.

Early River Civilizations of the Americas. It's easy to take the idea of civilization for granted. We are pretty used to the concept of a highly-organized, complex, and completely sedentary.

May 31,  · Age of Civilizations is a turn-based strategy game in which your object is to dominate the world. • Maps: Americas | [ Provinces] • Orders are submitted before each round/5().

Pre-Columbian civilizations | timberdesignmag.com